Friday, June 03, 2005
Ok cos I have just found out its Doughnut Day I thought I would do a brief thingy on Doughnuts. So I have just googled doughnut and after scouring through loads of stuff - wow Yahoo certainly has a comprehensive search engine. Anyway back to the doughnuts - I have come across this piece from "Wikipedia"
So I hope you are all sitting down..lol
Doughnuts can be made using a yeast-based dough (raised doughnuts), or a special type of cake batter. Cake doughnuts are often covered (on top) with a brightly coloured glaze icing or chocolate. Some doughnuts are dredged in cinnamon sugar or powdered sugar, while others are filled with jam or custard, briefly soaked in a sugary flavoured solution, or glazed. Some doughnuts are made with apple cider (the non-alcoholic kind) and are common at cider mills and farm markets. Many kinds of doughnuts are eaten warm.
Doughnuts have become a part of North American popular culture. The cartoon character Homer Simpson is especially fond of doughnuts, while popular mythology has American police officers addicted to them. There are entire chains of retail stores devoted to the selling of fresh doughnuts to eager customers, eg. Dunkin' Donuts, Tim Hortons, Winchell's Donuts, Country Style and many other chain stores. Krispy Kreme is distinguished by having neon signs, known as "hot lights", to inform customers when hot doughnuts are available - fresh off the assembly line.
Other sweet fried pastries very similar to doughnuts include churros and fritters.History
Doughnuts have a disputable history. A traditional story says that they were introduced into North America by Dutch settlers. This version is satirized in a The Simpsons episode, in which Mr. Burns complains of them as "ethnic foods". Another story credits the invention of the doughnut hole to a Danish sea captain named Hanson Gregory.
Washington Irving's reference to "doughnuts" in 1809 in his History of New York is believed to be the first known printed use of the word.
Doughnuts are also mentioned in the Little House on the Prairie series of books by Laura Ingalls Wilder. Before the "newfangled" ring shape became common, doughnuts were often made as twisted ropes of dough. When placed into a pot of boiling fat, they floated until the lower half was cooked, then rolled themselves over to cook the other side. Ring doughnuts had to be flipped over by hand, which was more time-consuming. The twisted-rope type is called a cruller in some parts of the U.S., but cruller also refers to a particularly airy type of ring doughnut, usually glazed.
"Doughnut" is the more traditional spelling, and still dominates outside the US. At present, "donut" and "doughnut" are both pervasive in American English, but only "doughnut" is listed in Thorndike and Lorge's (1942) "The Teacher's Word Book of 30,000 Words." It is unclear when the "donut" spelling first took hold, but frequently it is attributed to Dunkin' Donuts, which was founded in 1950. To the contrary, Mayflower Donuts pre-dated Dunkin' Donuts, and there are sparse instances of the "donut" variation prior to WWII. For instance, it is mentioned in an LA times article dated August 10th, 1929. There, Bailey Millard complains about the decline of spelling, and that he "can't swallow the "wel-dun donut' nor the ever so 'gud bred'."
American president John F. Kennedy, during a 1963 visit to Berlin, declared "Ich bin ein Berliner" which was mistranslated as "I am a jelly doughnut". The mistranslation has been exaggerated and become an urban legend.
Jelly doughnuts, known as Sufganiot in Israel, have become a traditional Hanukkah food in the recent era. Partially because they're cooked in oil in remembrance of the miracle of the oil, and also because of the sweetness of the holiday.Types
In Denmark there are Æbleskiver or Krapfshen (also called Aebeleskiver, Ableskiver or Ebleskiver) which are fried in a cast-iron copper-coated pan with individual recesses for each doughnut called a Munk Pan, and have a slice of apple inside.
In the Channel Island of Jersey (situated between England and France) there is a variety of fried pastry item called the Jersey Wonder which is supposed to be prepared when the tide goes out and unlike most 'traditional' UK doughnuts it is neither coated with powdered sugar, nor filled with jam (in French these doughnuts are referred to as mèrvelles).
A type of doughnut was recorded in the 19th century (http://freespace.virgin.net/roger.hewitt/iwias/newsapr2.htm) on the Isle of Wight, UK, with a different recipe from the type made in mainland Europe.
In Poland the round jam-filled doughnuts eaten especially - though not exclusively - during the Carnival are called pa;czki.
In Australia, the jam-filled, caster sugar-coated type of doughnut is traditionally sold hot from caravans at carnivals such as country shows and local markets. They are famous for having a tastiness that is proportional to the degree of delapidation of the caravan from which they are sold. They have been known to burn the mouths of the unwary - for this reason, in some areas the 'feeding of the unwary tourists' has become a thoroughly amusing spectacle.
In Malaysia and Singapore there is a traditional ball-shaped doughnut-like snack, made with glutinous rice flour, coated with sesame seeds and stuffed not topped with a variety of fillings, such as ground peanuts, bean paste and kaya. There is a Malaysian machine which makes, among other things, "Kaya Balls (http://www.ffs.com.my/products/otherpro.html)" whose recipe and description seems to indicate pretty conclusively that they are a very doughnut-like snack (although they are ball-shaped rather than toroidal) with coconut (Kaya) being the primary flavouring ingredient and they seem to be baked rather than fried. The machine also makes "corn balls, red bean balls, blueberry balls and custard balls" (which might also be considered to be varieties of doughnut-like items) and the maker also has another machine dedicated to making Elephant Ears and Frying Saucers.
In Italy zeppole
* Chiacchiere and also lattughe in Lombardy
* Cenci and also Donzelle in Tuscany
* Frappe and also Sfrappole in Emilia Romagna
* Bugie in Genoa and in Piedmont
* Crostoli in Venice and in Trentino
In France and in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, there is a fried pastry called a beignet which is sometimes described as a French doughnut but, as with other 'variants' of fried sweet pastry, the beignet typically has its own distinctive characteristics (shape and texture) which are sufficient in the minds of some of its devotees to object to Beignets being referred to as doughnuts.
Spain, Mexico, Chile, Argentina and Brazil have the churro, which may not generally be thought of as a doughnut, but has similar characteristics. A churro is a thin cylinder of deep-fried pastry with a characteristic 'ridged' surface, due to being extruded through a star shaped hole. It is also popular in the US where it is sometimes referred to as a Spanish Doughnut or Mexican Doughnut. A sweet Turkish 'fluted fritter' (which seems to look similar to Churros) is called Tulumba Tatlisi. The small, twisted variety of churro looks nothing like the large, un-twisted stick-like churro.
Another contender for the title 'Mexican Doughnut' is the Bunuelo, also known as the 'Mexican Fried Cookie' which is essentially a round, cookie-shaped doughnut, often shallow fried, rather than deep fried.
A Spanish variety of the doughnut are called Porras and are often served for breakfast, especially in Madrid).
A Middle Eastern and North African variety are called Sfinges or Sfingi.
In Germany, the doughnut equivalents are called Bismarcks or Berliners and don't have the typical ring shape but instead are solid, usually filled with jam. (German doughnuts are sometimes called Berlin Doughnuts in the USA.) +
In the Netherlands, there is a type of pastry item called Oliebollen which is referred to in recipe books as Dutch Doughnuts (or occasionally as 'Dutch Donuts') which contain pieces of apple and/or dried fruit like raisins, and is traditionally eaten as part of new year celebrations.
Another well known Dutch fried pastry recipe refers to Poffertjes which are prepared in a similar way to Danish Aebleskiver, but the Poffertje pan has more numerous recesses.
In the Hudson Valley (which includes the Catskill Mountains) in New York State, USA, a doughnut is sometimes called an olicook, which derives from the Dutch Oliekoeke or 'oil cake' (sometimes also called olykoecks).
Another creation popular in the USA which is made with 'fried sweet pastry' is funnel cake where the pastry dough is extruded through a funnel into a pan of hot oil and allowed to 'criss-cross' in the oil in the pan until the string of dough produced fills the bottom of the pan in a kind of tangled random spaghetti-like arrangement which is deep fried as a plate sized 'cake' rather than being the 'individual snack' that a doughnut is. Funnel cake is a dish which is associated with carnivals and funfairs like 'candy-floss' (cotton candy).
Other doughnut variants with different shapes are: bear claws, elephant ears, yum yums, Frying Saucers taiyaki and long johns
Some non-sweet fried items with different ingredients to 'wheat-flour based pastry' are referred to as doughnuts, such as vadas which are from India and are made with lentils (and look like ring donuts) and also 'potato doughnuts' which are sometimes made in the US.
Also there is the Native American Indian Frybread (which is fried pastry but not necessarily sweet or with a doughnut-like texture, but there are many variants of frybread, some of which are much more doughnut-pastry-like than others). A similar treat is found at festivals in many U.S. areas called fried dough, which is simply a doughnut-like treat made from a large lump of dough fried in oil.
An item called a Fudge Puppy is occasionally found on sale in the US at fairs and public entertainment events, and although it is often described as being based upon a Belgian waffle and looks like a hot dog roll smothered in caramel or cream or ice cream or chocolate or fudge sauce, there is every likelihood that varieties exist which are not based upon any waffle-specific treatment and are thus essentially 'long-johns' (that is, hot-dog-roll-shaped doughnuts) covered with the kinds of toppings which are more specific to Fudge Puppies (such as ice cream and fudge sauce) than to non-fudge-puppy doughnuts or waffles.
Now this is interesting as this is from an American point of view, so I went on the hunt for the english doughnut and do you know what? I couldnt find anything about our version apart from they are the same as the american doughnuts but with a sugary glaze..sounds about right..lol.
So there you have it..doughnuts in a nutshell :-)
Flying towards my dreams @5:28 pm